Juice Jacking: Understanding the Threat and Effective Prevention Measures

Posted on Aug 24, 2023 by Asma Khan

Have you ever found yourself in a situation where your phone’s battery is almost dead, and you rush to the nearest public charging station for a quick power boost? It might feel like a life-saving moment, but it comes with risks. You could be putting yourself at risk of juice jacking

When you plug your phone into a USB port, it charges your phone and allows data transfer. Cybercriminals could steal your private information or install harmful software on your phone. Scary, isn’t it? We’ll go through what juice jacking is, how it works, and, most importantly, how you can keep hackers away from your device.

What Is Juice Jacking?

Juice jacking is like opening the door to your home and letting in unwanted guests — except those guests are malware or data thieves. 

The term “juice” represents the electricity powering your device, while “jacking” implies hijacking. When you connect your device to a public USB port, you may unwittingly enable data transfer. This allows hackers to install malware or extract personal data while your device charges. Public charging stations in high-traffic areas such as airports, malls, or coffee shops are ideal for these hackers to target unsuspecting victims. 

Juice jacking first came to light at the DEFCON conference in 2011, which showed us about the dangers of using public charging stations. Since then, the story has taken several twists and turns, including the crafty cable created by Kyle Osborn in 2012 and the infamous Mactans charger in 2013. 

In 2019, the introduction of the O.MG cable added a new dimension to this ongoing cyber saga. This wasn’t just a regular charging cable — hackers could use it to access devices. It proved threats could come from unexpected places, making it even more important to be cautious about what we plug our devices into.

Why Are the FBI & FCC Warning People About Juice Jacking?

US government agencies are issuing active warnings about malware planted in public charging stations. Stacy Arruda, a former FBI cyber security expert, explains the monitoring software is particularly dangerous as it can capture every keystroke on the device. This means sensitive information, such as bank account credentials, can be easily compromised.

The FBI’s Denver office tweeted on April 6, 2023, warning about the risks of juice jacking.

The FBI’s Denver office underscores the threat of juice jacking, reminding the public to stay vigilant when using public charging stations.

The Federal Communications Commission also issued a warning five days after the FBI, advising people to think twice before using public charging stations due to the risk of juice jacking.

A timely reminder from the FCC about the lurking dangers of juice jacking at public charging stations.

How Does Juice Jacking Work?

Juice jacking is a specific type of cyber attack targeting hardware vulnerabilities. Perpetrators use a USB connection to inject malware into a charging station or infect a connection cable. They then leave the compromised cable plugged in, waiting for an unsuspecting victim to use it. When they do, it exposes their device to the injected malware.

The success of juice jacking attacks lies in the USB port’s dual functionality for device charging and data transfer. Typically, a USB connector uses one of its five pins for charging and two pins for data transfer. This structure lets the USB port pull data from your device, even when you’re simply trying to recharge your battery. This design lets hackers easily transfer files between mobile devices and computers while connected to a charging station.

Mobile device manufacturers have introduced measures to mitigate such threats. When you connect your device to a computer with a USB cable, data syncing isn’t automatic anymore. The connected device prompts you to confirm trust before enabling data transfer.

Despite this, an infected charging station could trick your device to transfer data without your approval. This silent breach allows cybercriminals to steal personal information, infect your device with a virus or malware, and monitor your keystrokes.

How Hackers Can Infect Charging Stations

Hackers generally compromise a charging station by infecting legitimate USB ports. Unlike ordinary outlets, modern charging stations connect USB ports to a computer or smart device, allowing for data transfer. This creates an opportunity for threat actors to poison the data transmission, potentially stealing information or installing malicious code. 

The malicious installation can lock devices, extract personal data and passwords, and grant unauthorized access to online accounts. It’s essential to remain vigilant and take precautionary measures to protect personal and work-related data.

Types of Juice-Jacking Attacks and Associated Risks

Juice jacking comes in various forms, each carrying its own set of risks and implications:

  1. Data theft

In a data theft juice jacking attack, hackers can unlawfully access your sensitive information without your awareness.

If a device stays connected to a compromised cable or port for an extended period, it can leak a substantial amount of data. Attackers may even be able to create a complete backup of the device’s data if given enough time and storage capacity.

  1. Malware installation 

When malware infects a device, it can manipulate its operations, spy on your activities, restrict access to the device, or steal sensitive information. The impact of these attacks can be significant and compromise both your data privacy and security.

  1. Multi-device attack

In certain instances of juice jacking, a device charged using compromised cables can unintentionally transfer the malware to other cables and ports. This creates a chain reaction wherein multiple devices act as virus carriers, potentially infecting other devices unknowingly. 

  1. Disabling attack

In certain instances of juice jacking, attackers upload malware through a charging device, which can lock you out of your device. The attackers gain full access to the compromised device, leaving you no access or control over your personal information and device functions. 

How to Avoid Juice Jacking

Follow these tips to ensure the safety of your smart devices:

  1. Use your charging cable

Carry your charging cable whenever possible. Using your cable eliminates the risk of connecting to potentially compromised charging stations.

  1. Carry a portable power bank

Invest in a reliable power bank to ensure you always have a backup power source. This allows you to charge your device without relying on public charging stations.

  1. Use USB data blockers/USB Condoms

USB data blockers, also known as USB condoms, are small devices blocking data transfer while allowing charging. 

Instead of directly plugging your device into a public charging port, connect your charging cable to the USB data blocker. Then, plug the blocker into the charging port. The data blocker ensures only power passes through the cable, preventing potential malware infections or unauthorized data transfers. 

  1. Install security software

To safeguard your devices, installing reliable antivirus and anti-malware software is essential. Keep these programs updated regularly to enhance their ability to identify and counter potential threats.

  1. Use chargers with plugs

Opt for chargers with plugs instead of USB cables. These traditional chargers don’t allow data transfer, providing a safer alternative when using public ports or electrical outlets.

  1. Lock your phone before charging

Enable security features such as your phone’s PIN, fingerprint, or passcode. When you lock your phone, USB ports typically can’t sync with it, adding an extra layer of protection.

  1. Select the “charge only” option

When prompted on your device to choose between share data or charge only after plugging into a USB port, always select the charge only option to prevent any data exchange.

  1. Use charging-only cables

Consider using charging-only cables to prevent the sending or receiving of data while your device is charging.

  1. Power down your phone

Consider turning off your device before charging. Although this is a last resort option, some phones only charge without syncing when turned off.

  1. Stay vigilant

Above all else, be cautious of using public charging stations, especially those without security measures. If you must use a public charging station, be mindful of any suspicious behavior or unusual devices attached to the station. 

It’s essential to trust your instincts and promptly report any concerns about suspicious charging stations or possible instances of juice jacking to the appropriate authorities.

Does a VPN Help You Avoid Juice Jacking?

If you physically plug your device into an infected cable, a VPN can’t do much to help you. However, what a VPN does is keep you secure and private while browsing the web. It can also prevent certain malware from infecting your device even further,  removing the ability for the malware to function or communicate with the sender.

PIA encrypts your data and creates a secure tunnel to send your web traffic through, which shields your online activities from prying eyes. This encryption becomes crucial when you connect to public Wi-Fi — a common occurrence at the very places where juice jacking also tends to happen, such as cafes and airports. Since your traffic is encrypted, cyberthieves lurking on unsecured public networks can’t snoop on your activity

So, while a VPN doesn’t prevent the physical compromise of your device via a tampered USB port, it does protect you from a slew of other threats. 


What is juice jacking?

Juice jacking is a cyber attack where hackers exploit public charging ports or cables to gain unauthorized access to your device. They can install malware, steal data, or take control of your device. It’s advisable to use your own charger, avoid using public ports, and consider using USB data blockers as additional security measures to protect yourself.

What is a juice jacking attack?

Juice jacking is a cyber attack where hackers gain unauthorized access to electronic devices by compromising public charging ports or using malicious charging cables. They can install malware, steal data, or remotely control the device. To avoid falling victim to juice jacking, only use trusted charging sources.

How can I avoid juice jacking?

To avoid juice jacking, take the following steps:
Use your own charger or power bank instead of public charging stations.
Use a USB data blocker (USB condom) for public charging stations.
Lock or turn off your device before using public charging.
Regularly update your device software for the latest security patches.
Be cautious about using public Wi-Fi charging stations.

Does a VPN protect you from juice jacking?

A VPN doesn’t directly protect you from juice jacking because this form of attack is physical, involving compromised cables or USB ports. However, PIA enhances your online security by encrypting your data, so others can’t spy on your online activity. A VPN keeps you safe from other cybercriminals and cyber threats while you’re browsing online.